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Urdu bhas chodd korun pakistan ani bharot dexant uloitat. 1989 vorsache zongonnonepromann bhartant urdu bhas uloupeancho ankddo 3,53,23,282 itlo axil'lo. Urdu bhas uloupeancho ankddo vingodd vingodd vattharant fuddlotoren asa: andhr prodex- 41,69,179 bihar-69,55,838 kornattok- 34,12,839 modhy prodex- 27,703 moharaxttr- 43,19,067 ut'tor prodex-1,07,67,175 ostont bongal- 12,00,216 gõy, domonn,divo- 11,31,288 ankoddeanche nodren pollelear bhorti-i bhasam'modim urdu bhaxecho sovo kromank lagta. Urdu hi mull areabharoti-i bhas zaun asa. Punn urdu pondditamni urduchem veakronn orbichea onukoronnan toyar kelem. Taka lagun te veglli manddaull kortat.

The word Urdu, written in Nastaliq style
A trilingual signboard in the UAE
A multilingual New Delhi railway station board

Survek urdu bhaxek ‘hindi’ mhunn vollkhotale. Omir khusro ( 1253-1324) hannem he bhaxecho ‘hindi’ mhunn ul'lekh kela. Sumar 1724 to, lokhnovo ani dil'lichea vidvanamni ‘urdu’ hem namv he bhaxek dilem. He mull utor turki asun tacho rth ‘loxkorachi chhaunni’ oso zata. He bhaxeche utpot'ti sombondamn vivdanambhitor khor motbhed asat. Dil'li, rampur, muradabad,bijnor, mujhfforonogor, soharonopur, ombala, udent potialla, mirot, ddehraddun hea prodexantlea prachin opbhronxantlean hi bhas ghoddli hem novea sonxodhonantlean soglleank many zalam.

‘urdu bhaxecho itihas teravea xotmanaadim gel'lo disna. Survek hi bhas orbi-farsi lipivangodda deunagorintoi boroitale.

Nagri lipintleanoi tatunt sahityonirmonni zali. Razost'techea agoneyak lagun musloman sahityikankddean farsi lipint sahityonirmonn zali. Razost'techea axroyak lagun musloman sahityonirmonni zali. Razost'techea axroyak lagun musloman sahityikankoddlean farsi lipint sahityonirmonni zali. Dokxinnent khvaza bondenovaz (moronn-1422) hannem soglleant poilim he bhaxent sahityonirmonni kel'leacho ul'lekh melltta.

Hindi bhaxent axil'le soglle sur ani vyonjnam urdunt asat. Urdu lipint hindiuri mohaprannankhatir svotontr chinham naslim, tori te uchchar asat. Zoddakxoramvorovim te ukte zatat.Jivhamuli-i svor oin, ghorxok kho, zo, go, fo ani mridutalvy ‘ ko’ him vyonjnam-i asat.Aiche urdu bhaxent lingbhed ani utrancho onty vornn hankam dhorun bhouvchonak vingddovingodd protyoi lagtat. Bhouvchonachem samanyorup ourot-ourtom, mord-mordo oxem zata. Porne urdu mat fokot em, an hea proteacher bhagtalem. Hea bhasant lingbhedavixim onixrvitoponn disun yeta.

Aichim urduntoli sorvonamam hindiuri asli. Tori pornea rupant vegllemponn dista. Moi, hum, hoim,hom', homem, homon-na, tu, tum, tu, tum, tum', tumon-na, muz-zho oxim rupam distat. Urdunt prothmavibhktint ‘ne’ ho kortrivachok protyoi chalont asa. ‘ne’ ho protyoi porne urdont sorras cholta.Urdunt tutiya ani ponchmi hea vibhktint aiz ‘se’ protyoyacho vapor zata. Porne bhaxent sum-so,te-tem, the-them, sat hancho vapor zatalo. Sete, siti,site him ‘se’ ani ‘te’chi okhondd rupam vhodd promannant dixtti poddttat. Choturthik lip, khatir he protyoi lagtat. Porne urdunt khatir, bodlohe protyoi lagtale. Lie ho protyoi khub usram ailo. Aiz sombondodrxok ka, ki, ke he asat.Porne bhaxent kera-ri-re he protyoi astale. Soptomint upor, por, mem, ondor, bahor he protyoi aspautat.

Urdunt bhutkalin rupam akarant zatat. Dekhik:podda, koha, bhaga ani her vortomanokalin kriapodancho protyoi ga- gi- ge oso zata. Vixexonnant vixexeanusar vibhkti bodlona. Akarant vixexonnant samany rup zata. Punn porne urdunt (dokkhini) khas korun i-karant namany vixexonnant vixexeacho protyoi lagta. Kria ani protyoi hankaim to teachvangodda lagta. Urdunt kalvachok ob, zob, tob, kob; thollvachok yoham, voham, zoham, toham,koham; dixavachok idhor, udhor adi ani ritivachok yom, jeom,keom, teo ani her vaprotat. ‘ki’hem ubheanvoyi ovyoi urdunt arombhasaun (sumar 1328) aizomeren vaprotat. Zo, je (ki) he ubheanvoyi ovyoi urdunt aiz unnech vapril'le distat.

Bhartacher vingodd vingodd kallkhonddant cholil'li muslomani razanchi razoutt hea vattharant urdu bhaxa sahiteachem mullaunn ghott korpak karonn tharli. Urdu sahity sadaronnoponnan dokxinnentolem urdu sahity, brittix razouttintolem urdu sahity, ut'torekoddolem urdu sahity, ani svotontrea uprantchea kallantolem urdu sahity oxa char bhagant vanttu yeta.

Dokxinnentolem urdu sahity: dokxinnentlea urdu sahiteache itihasik nodren tin bhag zatat.1412 merenchea poilea kallkhonddant dhormik svorrupi kauyorochonnuk zali. Sotravea xotmanamerenocho dusro kallkhondd urdu sahiteachem bhangrayug mhunn vollkhotat. Hea kallantlea sahiteache vhoratthi bhoxecho probhavo ani oihik jinnechem khor poddbimb poddil'lem zannouta. 1707 saun mhollear ourongojebachea mornnasaun urdu sahiteantolo tisro kallkhondd suru zata. 1707 vorsasaun urdu sahiteant vhoddlixi bhor poddlina muslomani razouttichea ostak lagun sahityikank razaxroi mellunk paulo na. Tacho porinnam' urdu sahiteacher zalo.

Urdu sahiteachi survat mohom'mod tughlokachea kallasaun suru zata. Deugiri hi apli rajdhani korchi, oxem mohom'mod tughlokak dixil'lean zaitea sufonk ani fokirank doultabadak vochchem poddlem. Hindi bolbhaxechem mullaunn dokxinnent poddpak hem ek karonn zalem.Tughlokachea adexavelean deugirint ayil'lea sufim'modim khvaza bondenovaz hacho bapuy razu hoi aslo. Hea khvaza bondenovazak urdu ani hindi bhasantolo dokxinnentolo adhy lekhok mhunn mantat. Tannem ‘mirazul axikoin’ (bhoktanchim sadhnam) ani 9 xikaronama (kurannacher adarit) sarke lhan- lhan godhyogronth rochle. Dokxinnentolo adhy kovi mhunn nizami haka vollkhotat. Tannem kodmoravo our pojh (kodmoravo ani podmini) hem mog jivancher adaril'lem khonddkauy rochlem (1460-62).

Kovi kurexin 1482 te 1520 kallant ‘bhogbol’ ho kam'-xastracher adarit gronth rochlo.Oxrof biabin (1458-1529) hannem ‘novo sordar’ namvachea hatboropant ‘korbola’ hangachea zhuzachem vornnon kel'lem melltta. Hindiche poile ovsthentolea proteacho vapor tannem tatunt kela.


Sollavea ani sotravea xotmanant xah miranji xomsul uxxak hannem sufi ponthacho prosar korpacho het monant ballgun borpaull keli. ‘xohadotut'tohokik’ , ‘khuxnaz’ he tache kauyogronth zaun asat. Tacho cholo burhanud'dinozanom' ani natu ominud'din ala he doguy sufi kovi asle. Heach kallant ibrahim' adiloxoh (dusro) (1580-1623) hannem ‘nouros’ ho kauyogronth rochlo. Sotravea xotmanant zaun gel'lea char vhodd kovinchim namvam ani sahityorochona fuddletoren asat: mul'lauzohi hannem ‘kutubomuxtori’ (1609-khonddkauy), ‘sobros’ (1635-godhy) fuddletoren asat: mul'lauzohi hannem ‘kutubomuxtori’ (1609-khonddkauy), ‘sobros’ (1635-godhy)heo sahityorochona rochrleo. Itihasik kaveacho zonok hoson xouki hannem ‘zofroname- hannem ‘moina sotvonti’ (khonddkauy) ‘soifulmulk’ (1626 khonddkauy), ‘tutinama’ (1639-onnkar)heo rochna rochleo. Mohakovi nusroti hannem ‘gulxone ixk’ (1658) ‘olinama’ (1665), ‘tarikhe-iskondori’ (1672) he tin gronth rochle. Muhom'mod voliul'la (moronn 1707) ho dokhkhoni hindiche poromporetolo nimnno kovi aslo.

Ut'torekoddolem urdu sahity: mogol samrajeachea ostacho ho kall aslo. Nadiroxohacheo dil'licher poddil'leo ghureo, zhuzam, luttalutt, haka lagun poristhiti samki ghall zal'li. Oxa hea sonkxttachea kallant legit urdu sahitean ghott mull dhorlem. Sirazud'din oli khan ‘arzu’(1689-1756) hannem survek kho-ya orthan urdu kaveak hatbhar laun unch pamvddo melloun dilo.Mirzha muhom'mod rofi ‘souda’ (1713-1785) mir toki ‘mir’ (1722-1810) ani ‘khvazamir dord (1711-1785) he survechea kallantole mhan kovi zaun asat. Souda hannem gozhol, kosida ani uphasika tor dord hannem ‘gozhol’ rochleo. Kauyogunnache nodren ‘mir’ hachi suvat unch asa.Tannem vroz bhaxentolim utram gheun aple xer sozoileat. Hea tiguy kovimni urduk ‘sahityik bhas’mhunn manachi suvat melloun dili. Teachvangodda farsi porompora ani mhonninchem onukoronn toxench onnkar korun he bhaxent tachi bhorsonn keli.

Hea uprantchea namnechea kovint inxa (sumar 1746-1817), ‘ mushofi’ , ‘zurot’ ani ‘rongin’ hancho aspavo zata. Inxa ani rongin hea kovimni urdu kaveant ‘lokhnovo-somprodai’ ho novo provah kelloilo. He xoilintlean kauy rochpi kovi vroz bhaxentolim utram kaddun uddoupant ani orbi, farsi utram tatunt bhorsopak mogn asle. Dhormik bolidanacher xokgitam rochpi mir bobir oli ‘onis’ (1802-1875). Tor dusro solamot oli ‘dobir’ (1803-1874),totkalin poromporechem poddbimb poddil'lo mir hoson (?- 1786) ani soimak mhotv divpi ‘nojir’okborabadi (?- 1830) hey hea kallkhonddantole mhotvache kovi zaun asat.

Mirza galib (1787-1869) haka urdu kaveant ek novem porv suru korpi vhodd protibhasompn'n kovi mhunn vollkhotat. 1300 xer aspaul'lo tacho ‘urdu divan’ ho ekuch kauyojhelo asun tachi lokpriyota aiz legin toxich asa. Tannem ixtt-vangddeank boryil'lea chitteancho jhelo ‘urdu-e-muol'la’ namvan namna zoddun asa. Hea jheleak lagun urdu godheak ek novem moddonn mell'llam oxem mantat. Goliba. Uprant lokhnovo modlea urdu kaveak demvti kolla lagli.


Inglix kallantolem urdu bhaxentlean novea godheachi bunead kolokt'teachea fortt vilyom' xikpak sompi zaunchi ani teurovim somskritik somprk sadunk mellcho, hi hem kolez thapnnuk korpafattoli mukhel mokh asli. He kolejicho mukheli ddo. Gilkristt (1759-1841), hannem urdunt zaite gronth rochle. Tatunt ‘ongreji hindusthani lugot’ (1798) ho don bhagantolo xobdokox ani 'hindusthani gramor’ (1796) he mhotvache asat. Gilkristt hachea fattbollak lagun zaite urdu sahityik mukhar aile. Tannem zaitea farsi gronthancho urdunt onnkar korun ghetlo. Tatunt mir om'mon hachem khonddkauy ‘bagobohar’(1802) ani xer oli ofsos hacho itihasgronth ‘araixe mohafil’ (1802) ani xer oli ofsos hacho itihasgronth ‘araixe mohfil’ (1805) he mhotvache asat.Mohafil’ (1802) ani xer oli ofsos hacho itihasgronth ‘araixe mohfil’ (1805) he mhotvache asat.

Sor soiyod ohmond (1817-1819) haka hea kallant ‘asarus-sonadid’ (1847) hea gronthak lagun vhodd kirt mell'lli. Tatunt dil'lintlea pornea ani itihasik mhotvachea vastunchem vingddovingodd toramni oprup chitronn kelam. Son 1864 to hea gronthacho french bhaxent onnkar zalo. Tachea arvil'lea vicharosoronniche prernnek lagun zaitea sahityikamni sopea ani sadhea urdunt gronth rochun somazabhitor zagritai nirmupacho yotn kelo. Okbor husen okbor (1846-1921) ho kovi purannomotovadi aslo. Tachem borop vinodi, tikh toxench uprodhan bhoril'lem aslem. Tea kallantolo to ek namnecho kovi aslo.

Muhom'mod husen azhad (1830-1910) haka itihasokar ani ttikakar mhunn vollkhotat.Tacho ‘abe hoyat’ (1891) ho gronth obhizat mantat. Oltaf husen hali (1837-1914) ho kovi ani godhyolekhok aslo. To kho-ya orthan vastouvadi ani somazosudharok kovi aslo.Tannem totkalin bailanchea dukhkhacher aplea don kauyogronthamvorovim ujvadd ghala. Urduntolo adhy ttikakar mhunnoi taka vollkhotat. ‘mukd'dome-xer o xairi’ ani ‘hoyate zaved’ he tache don gronth urdu godheantole mhotvache pamvdde mhunn mantat.

Nojir ohmod hannem (1836-1912) khas korun kotha, kadombori ani chuttke rochle. Tachem choddxem xibli nomani (1857-1914) hannem inglix godheache dhortecher urdu godheachi udrogot sadli. Tannem islamacho itihas, totvoginean vhodd vyoktinchim choritram hancher khas borop kelam. Sirtun'nobi ponddit rotnonath sorxar (1846-1903)hannem urdu kadombori lekhnachi bunead ghali. Tachea lekhnacher lokhnouchea totkalin somazojinnechi soya poddil'li dista. Obdul holim' ‘xoror’ (1860-1923) hannem islam' dhormantleo veakti ani ghoddnnukancher kadombori rochleo.

Mirzha muhom'mod ‘rusva’ hea kadomborikarachi ‘umrauzan oda’ (1899) hi kadombori kaim ttikakar urduntoli soglleant bori kadombori mhunn mantat.Premchondak novea vicharachea arvil'lea sahiteacho yugprourtok lekhok mhunn vollkhotat.Tachea sahiteant gamvgire jinnechem vastoupurnn chitronn nodrent bhorta. ‘godan’ , ‘chougane hosti’ ,‘bazar husn’ (kadombori) , ‘prem' pochchisi’ , ‘prem' bot'tisi’ (kothanjhelo) heo tacheo gajil'leo sahityokriti zaun asat.

Sor muhom'mod ikbal (1873-1938) ho kovi mhunn, khas korun ‘sare zohom se ochchha hindosota homara’ he kovitek lagun khub gajlo. Ponddit brijnarainn ‘chokobst’ (1882-1923), ‘zox’molihabadi (1898-?) , hosrot mohani (1875-1951), ‘jigor’ muradabadi he kaveachea mollar gajleat.

‘torkki posond’ (purogami) namvachi ek sahityik cholloull 1934 to voir sorli.Kixnochondor (krixnnochondr), osrarul hok ‘mozaz’ , zan nisar ‘okhtor’ , foiz ohmod ‘foiz’ , upendronath oxk, ‘zojbi’ sadot hoson montto, sojzad ‘zohir’ , khvaza ohmod obbas, rajendor sing bedi he cholloullintole kaim namneche sahityik zaun asat. 1941-42 chea sumarak he poromporentlea sahityikamni oxlil ani sonsonatti kotha rochun yuropiyonanchem onukoronn kelem.

1947 to bhartache suttke uprant jeo zati-i dongli va vaitt ghoddnnuko ghoddleo, tachem poddbimb tea kallantlea sahiteacher poddil'lem asa.


Svatontreauporantchea kallantolem urdu sahity:बदल

novi vicharpronnali ani novo axy hacho sangat gheun urdu sahity h kallamozogotim vhodd unchayer pavil'lem dista. Kai, kotha-kadombori,nattok. Ekankika, vinod, sahityosomikxa ani voicharik lekhon khas korun hea kallant mukhar ailem.Nattok. Ekankika, vinod, sahityosomikxa ani voicharik lekhon khas korun hea kallant mukhar ailem.

Urdu kayacher ne nove proyog, muktochhondacho ani protimancho vapor, protikovad, muxavad arzu’ ani ‘kale kagoz ki nojme’ he kovitanjhele ul'lekhoni-i asat. Bolraz komol hacho meri 'nojme’ ani ‘dil ka rixta’ toxench nagri lipyentolo ‘nariyl ke pedd’ he songroh gajleat.‘rahi’ masum' roza hache ‘rokse-moi’ ,’otthraso sot'taun’ ani ‘ojnobi xohor ojnobi raste’ he kauyojhele gajleat. Xaz tomkonot hannem thoddea kallant mottem namv mellyolam. Pakistani noukovint vojir aga (xam' our saye), ohmod foraz (dord-axob), zohur nozor (reza-reza) ,‘saki’ faruki (peas ka sohara), munir noyaji (zonglomem dhonuk) hacho vantto mhotvacho asa.

Kurrotulen hoidor hachea kotha-kadomboricher ostontechem sahity ani bharti-i kola-somskritayechi soya poddil'li dista. ‘sitaromse age’ , ‘xixe ka ghor’, ‘potzhodd ki avaz’(kothanjhele) ‘sofine-gome-dil’, ‘ag ka dorea’ (kadombori) namna zoddun asa. Dhorti ka kal ho kothanjhelo ani ek bund lohu ki ani kochhua heo tacheo kadomb-yo porinnamokarokotechea nodrentlean gamvgire jinnechem dorxon ghoddoilam. Pakistanant hajira mosrur ani khodiza mostur hea don bhoinnichem sahity kub gajlam. Tamnni kotha, kadombori ani nattkam rochleant. Kasim' mohmud hacho ‘kasim' ki memhdi’ , sadik husen hacho ‘fulom ka mohol’, obdul'lah husenon hacho ‘udas nosle’, kaji obdul sotar hacho ‘daraxikoh’ jilani banacho ‘oivane gozol’ he kothanjhele ul'lekhoni-i asat. Urdu nattkokaram'modim muhom'mod hoson, osgor bott, zaved ikbal, kasim' beg,onour inait ul'lah, reutixoronoxrma he mhotvache asat. Vinodi godhy rochpeam'modim e. Es.Bukhari, ‘potros’ sojzad hoidor, kakorovi fukrot, muxtak yusufi, ohmod zomal paxa, xoukot thanvi, bhartochond khon'na tor vinodi podhy rochpeam'modim zomir zafri, muhom'mod zafri,razankki, vahi, dilaur figar he lekhol mhotvache asat.

Ostontechea vicharank lagun urdu sahity-somikxa probhavit zalea. Ddo. Kholilurrohoman,bakor mehdi, uslub ohmod onsari xriram' xorma, kaji obdul goffar, hoson oskori,kodirozomom, alom' khundmiri hamnni somikxechea mollar mhotvacho vaur kela. Ddo. Korom' ris, ddo.Kholim' onzum' ani ddo. Gopichond narong hanche sonxodhonopurnn gronth mhotvache oxem mantat.Pakotstani somikxokam'modim ddo. Vojir aga hacho vaur mhotvacho asa. Zomil zalbi,mujffor oli soiyod hamnni-i ul'lekh korpasaroki somikxapor borpaull kelea. Purskar:bhartantolo sahiteakhatir axil'lo soglleant vhoddlo purskar 1969 vorsa firakh gorkhopuri (zolm':1896) hachea ‘gul-e-nogma’ hea kauyojheleak favo zalo. Sahity okademiche vorsuki purskar zoddpi her sahityik oxe.

1955: zafor husen khan, 1956: es. Abid husen, 1957: ke. E. Forukhi, 1948: jigor moradabadi (oli sikondor),1959: soiyod mosud hoson rijvi, 1960: firakh gorkhopuri (roghupoti sohai), 1961:imtiyaz oli ‘orxi’, 1962: oktor ul imam', 1963: ke. Ji. Saden, 1964:anond narainn mul'la, 1965: rajindor sing bedi, 1967: kurrotulen hoidor, 1969 :mokhdum' mohiod'din, 1970: ayatul'la onsari, 1971 :roxid ohmod sid'diki, 1974: oli ohmod surur 1975: koifi ajmi, 1976: zom nisar okhtor, 1978 :yusuf husen khan,1979: gulam' khbani tabem, 1980 :e. E. Onsari, 198 :gean chond zoin, 1973: molik ram', 1984: mosud husen khan, 1985 :bolraz komol, 1986: xomsur rohman forukhi, 1987 :xohroyar, 1988: xekh mohm'mod obdula (mornnauporant),1989: surendor prokax. 1966, 1968, 1973,1977 ani 1981 vorsa ho purskar konnakuch dilo na.

Polleiatबदल

Urdu

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